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The Continuing Education of the Professional. Generative Generative Phonology. A Note on Replies. The Phoneme. Recipe for Relevance. The Speech of New York City. Language and Psychoanalysis. Why Do Children Talk? Moreover, some aspects of their daily lives will also be explored. These are, namely, taverns as a way of communication between pirate crews and ships , their ways of nourishment and diet, their relation with the native population and encomienda owners, careening, and so on. In the Conclusion, firstly the main issues that were debated in the first three chapters will be summarized.
However, while not the main focus but a relevant issue, the case of the pirates of Somalia will be discussed in the context of shifting the paradigm of enemies of all and as a cause of retrospective history-writing in the recent studies on history of piracy. Although before there were pirates that were supported by states, the bulk of the support shifted from motherland to colonies around s which means that pirates did not have direct contact with the crown anymore but through representatives or governors in the Caribbean.
The year was also a crucial date for piracy. After the war they became unemployed. Some pirates continued piracy without state support. Others became employed as pirate 1The War of the Spanish Succession took place between and not only in Europe but also in major colonies such as West Indies, and North and South Americas.
Briefly, 1 5 indicates the rise of buccaneering in the West Indies especially in Tortuga and Port Royal, while represents the beginning of exclusion of pirates from state service. Moreover, this time period allows us to place the issue of piracy inside the decline of Dutch hegemony2, the seventeenth century downturn, and the period of stabilization in the form and structure of the world- economy Wallerstein, It was an era of absolutism, mercantilist policy, rivalry and wars Frank, The period between and was the high period of piracy in the Caribbean.
Thus, Caribbean piracy in the Atlantic Ocean in this period will be the priority due to the rise in the Atlantic economy after the flow of gold, silver, and other exotic products to Europe. Because the trade relations affected by piracy influenced the both sides of the ocean, one should deal with the condition and interaction of the Americas, Europe, and Western Africa. Yet even Madagascar, will be referred to from time to time in these debates due to the voyages of some pirates from Americas to these places, or vice versa. However, the precedent events and earlier piratical activities should be investigated in order to understand the high period better.
However, this state usually is reluctant to use military to realize that order. Use of military power, on the contrary, is perceived as an evidence of the decline of the hegemony. This man has been considered as one of the most important and influential figures in history, Christopher Columbus4. So it was probable that the first link between Europeans and Amerindians could be established by a pirate.
More important for the focus of this study is that the link between these two historically interrelated continents had an important consequence for the flourishing of piratical activities in the Atlantic and Caribbean trade routes and its relation with the development of capitalist world- economy led by the Western European states. Beginning with the first voyages of Columbus, these two continents became highly interrelated under the patterns of colonization. Moreover, this colonial relation of core Western Europe, and later the 3 The reason that we mention discovery in inverted commas can be explain best by the statement of Dhatkadons, the traditional chief of Onondaga Iraqouis: You cannot discover an inhabited land.
Furthermore, recent researches along with linguistic and graphological researches of Estelle Irizarry linked his handwriting as a Catalan one. However strong their claims, it is not certain that Columbus was a Catalan or Genoese. The events of the long-sixteenth century circa 1 75 and early and the so-called seventeenth century crisis that led to flourish of piracy in the context of these colonial patterns and the relation between Europe and the Americas will be dealt. The discovery of the Americas in 1 9 provided an immense wealth to the Iberian Peninsula by the attempt to seize all the gold and silver that helped the creation of a specific world-like network of relations of production, transportation, exchange, and trade called the capitalist world economy.
The incorporation of the Americas in to the modern world-system should be recognized with its historical significance Gills and Frank, Frank claims: The year marks both the economic continuity between the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and the constellation of political events which generated new directions that would revolutionize the world, creating a single world out of many and transforming the many to create one Frank, Kris E.
Lane mentions about the plunder of several ships of the Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent by Jean Florin or Fleury , a Norman pirate, as early as The ships, which were carrying a portion of the treasure stolen from the Aztec, or Mexica, ruler Moctezuma, had encountered other French corsairs near the Azores and had lost some valuables.
For Spain, this plunder brought up the fleet system as a protection for the American trade to the agenda in Moreover, Spain ordered merchant ships to travel armed by Lane, For North European states, this plunder indicated a new kind of business: supporting piracy in the Atlantic Triangle as a paramilitary tool. Except the brief period of peace between France and Spain from to , the hostilities of the French pirates to the Spanish settlements and treasure fleets continued.
French state and pirates in the mid-sixteenth century established the first relation between pirates and states for plundering the Spanish-American trade. In the second half of the sixteenth century, the English followed the French example and sometimes they carried out joint operations Perotin-Dumon, English pirates between and were mostly known as the Elizabethan pirates due to their activities in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.
Lane classifies these piratical activities as follows: 1 contraband slave trade from [the date that Elizabeth I acceded to throne of England] to , 2 piracy from [the date that Lisbon broke off diplomatic relations with England] to , and 3 privateering from [the date that the Anglo-Spanish War started] to [the date that Elizabeth I died] Lane, Until the diplomatic problems with the Portuguese, these people were contraband traders, or smugglers, then they became pirates, and lastly, in the war time, they were defined as privateers.
Moreover, all the events diplomatic problems and the war that mentioned above were caused by the piratical activities of these people John Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake, Thomas Cavendish, and others , supported and sponsored by the Elizabeth I in order to benefit from the lucrative trade of Spain with its colonies in Latin America. In the beginning of the second half of sixteenth century, the main aim of pirates such as John Hawkins was the slave trade. After he raided the West African settlements under the control of the Portuguese in , Hawkins dropped the African slaves on the north coast of Hispaniola and took the cargoes of Antilles such as sugar, pearls, and ginger.
Moreover, some Spanish colonists in Spanish America conducted an illegal trade with foreign pirates due to the strict mercantilism and saturated markets of their mother country [which] left them desperately short of slaves and manufactured items Galvin, 3. However, most of the pirates of the sixteenth century returned their prizes to their mother country or to European markets due to not having settlement in the Spanish America and right for legal trade.
For example, Francis Drake circumnavigated the Earth with his ship, Golden Hind during one of his expeditions in , sailed through the Pacific with John Oxenham, the first pirate raided on the coast of the Pacific. His gain was forty-seven thousand percent more than his capital in this expedition Galvin, 41; Gerthard, , 57; Hympendahl, He bestowed most of the prize to Queen Elizabeth and was ennobled Hympendahl, This event made an overwhelming impression.
This was due to a lack of permanent settlement in the Gulf or the Caribbean. These settlements, such as the Island of Tortuga and Port Royal, both provided population for pirate crews and reduced the length and duration of raids that the frequency and crowdedness of expeditions were increased. By the late sixteenth century, both these long-ranged operations continued in order to capture the Spanish gold and the efforts to justify these raids gained importance.
The roots of the mare liberum claims lay in these incidents. It was presented in order to legitimize these piratical raids. They were henceforth buttressed by the idea of establishing English colonies, of populating the pagan or barbarous countries which are not really possessed by any Prince or Christian people. That was the idea of Humphrey Gilbert, a gentleman educated at Eton and Oxford. He enunciated the doctrine, carried it into practice and helped in the settlement of the first colony in Newfoundland Ferro, These piratical activities were limited with respect to the numbers of long expeditions and voyages due to not having any pirate havens close to Latin America except Newfoundland.
As a result, these activities were not systematic nor populated enough. Moreover, state support was so obvious in that period that these sponsored and licensed piratical activities caused a war between Spain and England allied with the United Provinces. Thus, in the latter periods, Northern European states took lessons from it to support pirates secretly and slyly. With this lesson, the second characteristic of the seventeenth century piracy was established as mentioned above pirates were easy to disown. In the context of the bridge between piratical activities in the sixteenth century and seventeenth century, Captain William Jackson played a crucial role.
By the time, Jackson arrived on the scene, that situation had changed completely. With so huge a realm to colonize and defend, the Spaniards were hard to put to safeguard numerous tiny islands that offered little or no mineral wealth Galvin, In his three-year marathon cruise between , these tiny islands, St. Some of the islands were recovered by the Spaniards Galvin, Although pirates seized the fifteen-percent of Spanish silver between and and made their mark in history of the sixteenth century thanks to their successful plunders, Cipolla argues that the Spanish convoy system was successful against English, French, and Dutch pirates.
At that time, the Spanish Armada was the most numerous and powerful armada. These transoceanic war ships were unrivalled. Thus, they managed to avoid the deep-sea piratical plunders of the sixteenth century to certain extent. However, a new era of piracy was about to begin inside a world full-of transitions. According to Arrighi, the United Provinces became the hegemonic power under the conditions of: the revolts directed against the Habsburg Empire. This disrupted the trans-European networks of trade Arrighi, In dealing with such problems, northwestern European states could not provide conventional military support to their colonies and protect them against a possible Spanish attack.
The best way to provide such support and protection was to invite pirates to their colonies in the Caribbean. These pirates were hired both to protect the islands from the Spanish and to seize merchant ships.
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English, Dutch and French governments authorized the majority of pirates with letters of marque to seize Spanish ships and goods Barbour, States used these paramilitary tools not to enter an official war in the Americas and to take what they wanted: gold, silver, sugar, coffee, indigo, cochineal, rum, and so on.
According to Wallerstein, the long B phase of the seventeenth century to was a period of recession of capitalist world- economy. It was also the period of consolidation in the form and structure of the world-economy Wallerstein, In this period, the state structures were institutionalized by the Peace of Westphalia: As rulers legitimated their respective absolute rights of government over mutually exclusive territories, the principle was established that civilians were not party to the quarrels between sovereigns.
The most important application of this principle was in the field of commerce. In the treaties that followed the Settlement of Westphalia a clause was inserted that aimed at restoring freedom of commerce by abolishing barriers to commerce5… thus [it] found its way into the norms and rules of the European system of nation states… The systemic chaos of the early seventeenth century was thus transformed into a new anarchic order Arrighi, It was in an anarchic order that pirates found themselves supported by centralized political authorities.
Thus, in the period of the Dutch hegemony, the power of Spain along with its monopoly over all aspects of the Americas was broken: the Dutch held the Spanish at bay in the Americas, providing the "naval screen" behind which the English plus the Scots and the French built up colonies of settlement Wallerstein, According to Wallerstein, the hegemony of the Dutch was established because of three factors: 1 the development of technologies in herring gathering and the Dutch supremacy of its commerce, 2 the superiority in agriculture, and 3 the industrial advantage — on textile, shipping, and sugar refinery industries Wallerstein, Moreover, the financial superiority of the United Provinces — by bottomries6, insurances, and brokerage — compared to other European countries was also important in the context of being hegemonic.
In 5He mentions about mainly the barriers that were brought by the monopoly of Spain in the commerce with the Americas. The Netherlands was the hegemonic state of the era in the capitalist world economy after The rapid growth of population in Europe in the last few decades of the sixteenth century and the shortage of food in the Southern Europe in s created a perfect condition for the Dutch to sell the Baltic grain to countries like Italy and Spain in large amounts e.
The science of engineering was used in the supremacy of the Dutch in the context of shipbuilding. Both hemp and flax were used in rope, sail-making, and textile industry. Hops were used in beer-making, and extended southwards, particularly in the seventeenth century with the Dutch advance Braudel, 19 5: 3. Dye was used in the textile industry as a chemical. All of these products affected the lives of pirates and should be mentioned to understand their historical value for this study. Thus, in the first instance, the importance of herring gathering and its relation with the salt trade should be mentioned.
The importance of herring trade for the United Provinces can be seen in the Dutch saying such as: Al is de Sallem schoon, Da Haering spant de Kroon the salmon may be beautiful, the herring surpasses all , or as in another Dutch saying: the herring fishery was the mother of all commerce Goslinga, Yet, why was the herring commerce so important for the Dutch?
Yet, it was in the so-called the Golden Age of Sail that the major transportation link of the capitalist world-economy at that time was the sailing ship. Almost all the trade with colonies was depended on these sailing ships, and its crew and cargo to reach safely and soundly to its destination. The salted and barreled herring was important for these voyages and highly demanded. Braudel claimed in the first volume of his trilogy, Civilization and Capitalism that herrings were exported to western and southern Europe by sea, along rivers, by carriage and by pack animals Braudel, The monthly food portions of the House of Correction in Copenhagen included 20 lb herring and 3 lb dried fish7, and the diet sheet of the House of Correction in Bury St.
However, the problem was that in order to preserve it in the ships these herring had to be salted. Thus, the United Provinces needed to find sources of salt. Zeeland was famous for its process for whitening salt which were in demand all over Europe. In order to find the sources of salt, the Dutch sailed to south to the Salt Islands, also known as the Cape Verde Islands, and eventually to West Indies. As early as March, , privateering commissions for salt ships were issued in great numbers and the total annual tonnage of these privateering ventures reached thirty thousand tons and probably exceeded Goslinga, Those privateering activities for salt were held in places like Punta de Araya Venezuela , Tortuga, and St.
Martin Puerto Rico , and because of those activities, between and , the size of herring fleet grew from ships to more than 4, Goslinga, , Those ships called haringbuis, or buss, had similar characteristics with ships that pirates used near Tortuga in the mid- seventeenth century: great maneuverability, seaworthiness, and speed Wallerstein, ; Not only Dutch burghers used this dye: The result was that many of the finest drapes, silks and tapestries of Europe depended upon the Indians of Mexico, Guatemala, and later Peru for their eye-catching crimsons and scarlets.
Although gold, silver, and sugar and later coffee have been perceived and presented as the most and only precious products of Latin America by historians, cochineal dye became one of the most demanded precious products of Latin America, and one of the most demanded products for pirates and privateers as a booty: Among the many freebooters intrigued by the commodity was the legendary English pirate Francis Drake, the scourge of New Spain. The son of a cloth maker, Drake was well aware that textiles were still the biggest business in Europe, a key source of power, prestige, and profit Later that year the earl of Cumberland captured a Spanish ship off the coast of Spain, which contained another heavy cases of the dyestuff… Pound for pound, cochineal was one of the most valuable goods a pirate could capture.
In the s and s, the dyestuff was worth 26 to 40 shillings a pound in England, depending on quality and market scarcity Greenfield, , In the wild, Indians would pluck them off the cactus and plunge them into hot water or into an oven. This was a precise, laborious business, since it took some 70, dead bugs to make one pound of cochineal Pomeranz and Topik, The rumors spreaded by the Spanish that Pie de Palo would not abandon the Caribbean unless he was compansated by a booty in silver, cochineal, and silk Goslinga, In , the West India Company of the United Provinces had robbed Spain that booty of cochineal was at its peak point for the country Goslinga, 9.
In , Hanna reported that in Vera Cruz, pirates plundered a special kind of red dye valued of one thousand silver coins piaster Hanna, ; The Dutch expanded their trade and ship industry from the northeastern Europe in the sixteenth century to the White Sea, the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the South-East Asia in the seventeenth century. Thus, they needed to attract and support the ship-owners to sail and trade in those seas and oceans.
Moreover, the Chamber of Insurance was established and the first insurance was issued in which caused the increase in insurance cases in and the establishment of a specialized court to deal with these cases Go, Thus, the United Provinces commissioned pirates as privateers with letters of marque to capture and seize the trade of other countries, provided financial support with bottomries, and secured their ventures with insurances. For such a risky and force-using enterprise as piracy, this was a golden opportunity.
The historical background of changes in ship-building and the Dutch supremacy in the ship building industry should also be mentioned.
Thus, the major changes in 15th century and its way of development through 17th century should be explained briefly. In this context, Romola and R. In the fifteenth century, ships started to have three masts and five or six sails instead of one mast and one sail that full-rigged ships were started to be used which was to remain for four centuries. Changes were rapid in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries compared to changes in the seventeenth century.
However, we should explain that specific characteristic of ships of different countries were related to the strengthened state structures starting with the seventeenth century. On the other hand, the rapid changes of previous centuries were related to the discovery of the Americas and economic upturn or the sixteenth century.
Perry Anderson and Fernand Braudel also mentioned the importance of innovations in ship-building. Perry Anderson claims that the construction of the three-masted, stern-ruddered galleon made the oceans navigable for conquests overseas Anderson, 22 , Braudel argues that innovations of the sternpost rudder, the hull constructed with lap joints, and shipboard artillery made navigation on the high seas possible Braudel, Inside this increasing trade with sailing ships, the English, by having devoted themselves to piratical activities in both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, built light and well-armed ships which could manoeuver with sails and sail against the wind Cipolla, Moreover, the Dutch developed fluyt, or flyboat, by their advanced ship design capabilities Lee, As it can be seen in Table 1, in a world in which having the sailing ship was a must, most of the ships of other European countries were Dutch-registered.
This situation provided the Low Countries an adventagous position compared to the others: Shipbuilding yards were hived off as an autonomous industry. In Saardam and Rotterdam, independent entrepreneurs took orders from merchants or states and were able to meet them without delay although the shipbuilding industry was still very largely artisanal. And even in the seventeenth century, Amsterdam was not only a market for new ships, or for orders to build them, but had also become a huge market for the resale of secondhand vessels Braudel , Yet, the navies of the era started to take different paths in the sense of ship-building.
In the sixteenth century, a special trade for the building of warships, as distinct from to merchant ships started to be recognized Robertson, Thus, a new techniques in sea battles occured: With the expansion of merchant shipping and with the recognition of artillery as the main instrument of naval warfare fighting ships made a corresponding advance in size. The Commission of Reform of , on whose report the subsequent reorganization of the Navy was based, held that the primacy of the big gun had at last been established.
In their navies, European powers started to built large and heavily armed ships due to increasing number of sea battles. So then, what was the purpose behind the continuing construction of light and small ships, and how did these ships help the Dutch to gain supremacy over this trade? This can be explained by the existence of piracy. In the mid-seventeenth century piracy in the Caribbean, light vessels was still in use. Moreover, boarding was still one of the best ways to capture goods from the bigger ships.
The use of light ships and the boarding tactics will be explained in the latter parts of this essay in detail and with examples. Because of the science of engineering of which reasons were mentioned above — wind-powered sawmills, powered feeders for saws, block and tackles, great cranes to move heavy timbers Wallerstein, : — the United Provinces also enjoyed the efficiency in the shipbuilding industry.
In this context, Fayle mentions about a Dutch epigram that the herring keeps Dutch trade going, and Dutch trade sets the world afloat cited in Fayle, :1 9. Another industry that provide an advantegous position to the Dutch was the sugar refinery. Only in Amsterdam, there were 60 sugar refineries in that most of sugar from the French and English colonies refined in those refineries until the English Navigation Acts of and similar restrictions enacted by Jean Baptist Colbert in France Masefield, Yet, sugar in Brazil and the West Indies had an interesting history which was full of violence and slavery: Sugar cane — if the crop is to be used to make sugar and not just for the extraction of juice, so that proper cultivation, prompt cutting and grinding, and skilled processing are involved — has always been a labor-intensive crop, at least well into the twentieth century.
Sugar production was a challenge not only technical and political administrative terms, but also in regard to the securing and use of labor Mintz, However, due to violent acts in the search of gold and silver in the Americas by conquistadores, the cultivation of sugarcane and the sugar production were not seen as a profitable product until the first half of seventeenth century Mintz, It was also because the decrease of population and the destruction of nature due to the patterns of colonization and its brutal application by the first settlers.
In terms of seizing and plundering the resources of nature and valuable goods of local population — valuable to Europeans- the first settlers from Spain were successful. Yet, such a violent way of direct extraction did not provide continuity in the flow of silver and gold. Thus, if the Spanish had wanted to benefit from these resources, they would have had to quit banditry and act as if they were entrepreneurs Cipolla, 3: 3. The reason for such banditry was that the resources in these regions were controlled by conquistadores, in the name of the Spanish crown.
This does not mean that merchants were not violent at that time. Merchants were often men at arms , or had men of arms with them. They took reproduction and reinvestment into account while reproducing their violence in different ways. However, it was still hard to distinguish the force-using enterprises and the profit- seeking enterprises at that period Lane, The best examples were the systems of encomienda and hacienda as a new form of violent and destructive governance see, Figure III.
In the hacienda system, by monocropping, foodstocks from haciendas moved through mines and plantations to feed the labor force; labor from native settlements was distributed to haciendas, plantations, and mines; and precious products such as silver and sugar moved through, first, the administrative cities, then respectively to ports and the motherland. The relation of this system with piracy was as follows.
Although not having right to trade with the Spanish colonies, France, England, and the Netherlands started to invade and settle small-sized islands and lands in Latin America. For example, in Tortuga, West Indian Company of France made an agreement with pirates, hunters, and planters, the first possessors of Tortuga , due to the fact that they did not have means of secure trade in this region Esquemeling, Pirates and privateers had provided a huge amount of wealth to France, England, and the Netherlands in Latin America.
Wealth flowed in, in the form of gold and silver, both directly by seizure and plunder by pirates and indirectly by the contraband trade of other precious goods brought by pirates. Yet, this wealth led to urbanization, enlarged the settlements, and increased the population mostly, slaves from Africa to work in plantations. As a result of this situation, small-scale plantations began to be built to create a constant source of production and profit. Yet, the new population, mostly black slaves and also white servants, continued to get involved with piracy due to low income, hard- work, and harsh treatment in plantations Esquemeling, This situation created a deep rooted problem between encomenderos and pirate captains.
Run-aways slaves, indentured and native servants, and so on from plantations and encomiendas started to join pirate crews as an easy way to get rich. In a short period this deepened the problem of the lack of work force and decreased the potential labor force of plantation owners. In this context, the best example can be Port Royal, Jamaica. There were around pirates based in Jamaica when the population was below in the mid-seventeenth century National Geographic, Until these colonizers got the legal trading right with the former Spanish colonies in the Hispanic America, the pirates had the support of the governors.
For example, in s, the Dutch East India Company occupied the northeastern coasts of Brazil, and to increase profits they started to cultivate sugar. Moreover, they provided every means — even the production techniques — to the English to start sugar production in Barbados.
Language and Cognition
Yet, its networks were more complicated than a triangle. Thus, the relations with the capitalist world-system in that sense become decisive as sugar is the price of sugar Marx, In such a world that the maritime trade operated inextricably in the seas of the world and the Americas became the production space of most of the precious metals and raw materials, the flourish of the seventeenth century piracy and privateering can be understood more straightforwardly.
It is not the romanticized context of pirates, but as the challenge to Spanish monopoly over its colonies and an important part of the shift of power from south to north in Western Europe. Additionally, the pseudo-legality of this machine was provided by the letters of marque for pirates to seize other nations and fuel was the African slaves, sailors, Native Americans, and other ordinary people forced to work. Silver Flows and Piracy: In this single world-economy, silver from Latin American mines flowed to, in the first instance, Spain, and then respectively Europe and the rest of the world.
The trade networks in the sixteenth century were operated as follows: silver from Mexico and Peru as coins and ingots were transported to Spain, and then, spread to other European countries. Most of these silver coins and ingots moved east towards China and India. In the opposite direction, a mass of Asian products was transported to Europe, and European products to the Americas Cipolla, American silver in that sense was crucial for the system to operate. In detail, according to Carlo Cipolla, there were three alternative ways of transporting silver from the Americas to Asia: first of all, the Spanish reales was brought to China by a galleon that carried them firstly to the Philippines, and then, to China via the Manila galleon trade Cipolla, ; Frank, With illegal ways such as smuggling, which was so widespread in that era that even officers, merchants, passengers, and churchman were invloved in it, silver was transported to Portugal.
Another way of silver transportation was from Seville those silver was transported to London, Amsterdam, or Genoa by legal or illegal ways. By either sea or land transportation, those cargoes of silver were brought to China. On these tracks, piracy and banditry were quite often but especially in the Caribbean where all these silver coins were transported from. These new techniques and methods of mining influenced Spanish mine-owners and merchant entrepreneurs.
Cipolla claims that the production of silver increased constantly and reached its peak point for the era between and Cipolla, In the mid-sixteenth century, the most famous silver mine of Latin America was discovered, Potosi. Although the production was slightly decreased in the seventeenth century, Potosi continued to be the most productive silver mine in Latin America until the demise of these mines in the eighteenth century Galeano, 20, Galeano further explains the situation on Potosi: The church altars and the wings of cherubim in processions for the Corpus Christi celebration in were made of silver: the streets from the cathedral to the church of Recoletos were completely resurfaced with silver bars.
In Potosi, silver built temples and palaces, monasteries and gambling dens; it prompted tragedies and fiestas, led to the spilling of blood and wine, fired avarice, and unleashed extravagance and adventure Galeano, The silver mines of Guanajuato and Zacatecas in Mexico experienced their golden age of silver production in the latter periods Galeano, For example, the most productive era of Zacatecas mine was between and Cipolla, Thus, Latin American silver mines were still providing wealth in the shape of silver.
Then, what was the reason behind the decrease of silver acquired by the Spanish? The real issue from the standpoint of the Spanish economy was how much of this silver arrived in Spanish ports. Between and , the silver flow increased to 2, tons. Yet, between and this number decreased to tons. Hamilton, 42 see, Table 3. First of all, a basic but fatal mistake in assumptions affected Spain deeply in the reigns of Charles I and Phillip II They simply overestimated the amount of bullion available to finance foreign policy and assumed that these mines would yield in an increasing amounts. Yet, both of these rulers relied on the security of the next shipments and raised great loans from foreign bankers.
For example, this assumption of Phillip II was caused by the temporary increase in the output during s due to use of mercury in the recovery process. Spain was four times bankrupt respectively in , , , and Lee, However, it cannot have been only the decline in the production. Although there was decline in the production of silver due to the exhaustion of silver mines, it was not that much severe in the mid-seventeenth century as it had been explained.
Moreover, it cannot have been only the requisition of silver coins by the colonial governments. Local governments took some of the silver coins that produced in the colonies due to the local development of a monetary economy in the colonies. Yet, it was also a fact that started at the end of sixteenth century and most of it was still exported to the motherland Cipolla, Smuggling silver was a part of the problem that caused the Spanish crown was unable to control the flows of silver as mentioned above.
Yet, it cannot have been only smuggling due to the fact that smuggling had been always a part of this business. For example, in , a ship full-of-silver was sunk close to the Spanish coast somewhere between Cadiz and Gibraltar and the cargo was rescued. Yet, instead of official amount of the , pieces of eight, twice this number was found in the wreck Cipolla, This power, however, far from being used to oversee a smooth transition to the modern system of rule Arrighi, Stephen J.
As well as not mentioning the role of Arab cultivators before the Reconquista in , Lee also ignores the presence of piracy. Besides the debts that the Spanish crown owed to finance wars in Europe, Carlo Cipolla adds two other important factors that Spanish had to deal with: 1 the disadvantages of ships against the forces of nature storms, hurricanes, and so on , 2 and the first examples of piratical activities in the Atlantic and Caribbean trade routes by English pirates of Elizabethan era such as Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins.
For example, between and , English pirates plundered fifteen percent of Spanish silver Cipolla, Moreover, the Arabs that had been discarded from Iberian Peninsula involved in a new enterprise in North Africa: piracy which targeted Spanish ships. Thus, played a crucial milestone for Spain. Violent methods and monopolistic behaviour of Spain in both Iberian Peninsula by the Reconquista and the Americas by the activities of conquistadores planted the seeds for piratical activities against themselves in both North Africa and the Americas.
Galeano explains the situation of Spain in the seventeenth century as: The Spaniards owned the cow, but others drank the milk Galeano, Thus, the critical decrease in the silver import of Spain in the seventeenth century was related to piracy in the seventeenth century. Thus, the exceptional increase in silver production alone was not enough.
Due to decline of the power of Spain as mentioned above, regular indebtness to finance wars and demands of the colonies10, decline of local population which led As a part of capitalist world-economy, unequal trade relation between core and periphery 10 were established.