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Hempel in organising international conferences and editing the journal Erkenntnis. The death and dispersion in exile of key members from onwards did not mean the extinction of Vienna Circle philosophy. Through the subsequent work of foreign visitors A. Ayer, E. Nagel, W. Current scholarship of the movement is concerned to retrieve the latter and combat the caricatures that obscure the continuities with present 'post-positivism'. Carnap, R. Hahn, and O. Neurath, ed. Dordrecht: Reidel, The original manifesto; popular. Ayer, A. Language, Truth and Logic. London: Gollantz; 2nd ed. Potboiler by former visitor assimilating the Circle's thought too seamlessly to British empiricism.

Translated by Rolf A. Originally published as 'Der logische Aufbau der Welt'. Benary, The Logical Syntax of Language. Studies of the foundations of the empirical and formal science by Circle's most influential theorist; difficult. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2nd ed. Later work on intensional semantics, with important and accessible essays reprinted in supplement to 2nd ed. Hahn, H. Mathematics: Philosophical Papers. Dordecht: Reidel. Collected philosophical papers by founding member, with bibliography.

Feigl, H. Inquiries and Provocations: Selected Writings Essays by former student documenting the developments in 'received view' into the 70s. Frank, P. Modern Science and Its Philosophy. Philosophical papers by founding member, with significant historical retrospective. Hempel, C. New York: Free Press. Essays by former student documenting the developments in 'received view' from 40s into the 60s.

Neurath, O. Philosophical Papers Representative selection of founding member, with bibliography. Empiricism and Sociology. Selection of papers and monographs on social science and visual education, with memoirs. Reichenbach, H. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. General epistemology of important Berlin associate. Selected Writings , 2 Vols. Philosophical papers, reviews and monographs, with bibliography.

Schlick, M. General Theory of Knowledge. Lasalle, Ill. Early epistemological work of later head of Circle, anticipating much that was to come. Philosophical Papers , 2 Vols. Collected philosophical essays , incl. Kraft, V. New York: Greenwood Press, Influential but decontextualised and traditionalist account by participant. Hanfling, O. Logical Positivism. Traditionalist foundationalist account.

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Skorupski, J. In English-Language Philosophy Pithy account of fate of original verificationism. Schilpp, P. The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. Classic discussions of Carnap's work by collaborators, students and critics, with autobiographical essay and bibliography.

Achinstein, P. The Legacy of Logical Positivism: studies in the philosophy of science. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. Critical assessments documenting the overthrow of the 'received view'. Bell, D. Science and Subjectivity. The Vienna Circle and 20th Century Philosophy. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. Giere, R. The Origins of Logical Empiricism. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Rescher, N. The Heritage of Logical Empiricism. University Press of America. Spohn, W. Hans Reichenbach. Rudolf Carnap: A Centenary. Erkenntnis Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Stadler, F. Scientific Philosophy: Origins and Development. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook I. Cartwright, N. Cat, L. Fleck, and T. Cambridge: University Press. Intellectual biography and legacy of Circle's enfant terrible. Coffa, J. Defense of Carnap's logical reconstructivism with good account of interactions with Wittgenstein. Oberdan, T. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Examination of protocol sentence debate, with emphasis on Schlick's later philosophy.

Proust, J. Translated by Anastasios Albert Brenner. Historical perspective on Carnap's efforts. Richardson, A. Reconstruction of development of Carnap's early philosophy. Uebel, T. Analysis of variety of the epistemological positions adopted in the Viennese protocol sentence debate, with emphasis on Neurath's naturalism.

What is the nature of Frege's logicism? To what extent are his concerns philosophical, mathematical or a combination of the two? Benacerraf, P. French, Theodore E. Uehling, and Howard K. Wettstein, eds. Demopoulos, ed. Wilson, M. Wright, ed. Diamond, C. Dummett, M. Frege: Philosophy of Mathematics. London: Duckworth. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Final chapter. Boolos, G. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume Thomson, ed. Reprinted in W. How can the principle be justified; is it an analytic principle? What is 'the Julius Caesar Problem' that leads Frege to reject an implicit definition of cardinal number?

What grounds Frege's commitment to treating numbers as objects? Parsons, C. Frege: Philosophy of Language. Brandom, R. Kessler, G. Journal of Philosophy Simons, P. Kitcher, P. The Nature of Mathematical Knowledge. Some topics here overlap with topics in the Logic and Metaphysics paper.

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However, preparing for the present paper will normally require additional work, to gain a deeper understanding and one better informed by details of Frege's texts. What is the motivation for Frege's introduction of the distinction, and what argument can he provide for it? London: Duckworth; reprinted in A. Moore, ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Wiggins, D. In M Schirn, ed. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog. McDowell, J.

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Mind ; reprinted in A. Evans, G. Frege's term for the sense of a sentence is Gedank, thought. He seems to take such entities to be structured and composed out of the senses of the component words of a sentence; he takes the Bedeutung of true sentences to be an object, the True. He also thinks of thoughts as eternal, and as possessing absolute truth-values, how does reconcile this with the existence of tense and indexicality? The Interpretation of Frege's Philosophy.

London: Duckworth Ch. Burge, T. Haaparanta, and J. Hintikka, eds. Ricketts, T. Parret, and J. Bouveresse, eds. Berlin: W. Reprinted in his Collected Papers. Perry, J. New York: Oxford University Press, Harcourt, E. A Reply to Wolfgang Kunne'. Mind This seems to threaten an infinite hierarchy of senses of senses.

Forbes, G. Philosophical Review Frege ascribes Bedeutung not only to names and descriptions, but also predicates. The referent of a name is an saturated entity, that of a predicate, an unsaturated entity, together they can be unified into a thought. Seemingly paradoxically, Frege must deny that the concept horse which must be a saturated entity, since it is picked out by a description is what the predicate 'horse' stands for. Sullivan, P.

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Journal of Philosophical Logic Rumfitt, I. Russell's definition of number; the contrast with Frege; the no-class theory. Paradoxes: type theories, simple and ramified; semantic and logical paradox. Chihara, C. Reprinted in P. Benacerraf, and H. Putnam, eds. Cambridge University Press , Goldfarb, W. Wade Savage, and C. Anthony Anderson, eds.

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Russell's theory of descriptions, names, identity, existence; his criticism of Frege's theory the 'Gray's Elegy' argument ; significance of descriptions for the philosophy of mathematics and for epistemology; belief, truth and the unity of the proposition. Blackburn, S. Analysis Pakuluk, M. In Andrew Irvine, and Gary Wedekind, eds. Hochberg, H. Philosophica Munich and Vienna: Philosophia Verlag, Griffin, N.

Philosophical Studies Russell 5: Perception: sense data, idealism. Knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description. Analysis, logical atomism, facts. Logical constructions: space, time, the external world.

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Why does Wittgenstein think that sentences can be analysed into simple signs and the world into simple objects? How are the linguistic and ontological aspects of his thinking about this topic interlinked? What are pictures? What can picture what? How are pictures related to what they picture? In what sense are linguistic items pictures? Kripke suggests without unreservedly endorsing a novel and exciting interpretation of the private language argument see also Fogelin , p.

The argument Kripke extracts from Wittgenstein is in two parts. This conclusion is reached by canvassing all the plausible candidates for such meaning-constituting facts and finding them all wanting. This is the most general sense in which a "private language" is impossible: An individual considered in isolation from other speakers cannot be said to speak a language see Kripke , pp. Most commentators have not endorsed Kripke's interpretation in particular, see Baker and Hacker , chapter 1; McGinn , chapter 2. However, Kripke's Wittgenstein has become a philosopher of considerable interest in his own right.

Kripke's book revived interest in the issue of whether the private language argument and related material on rule following is supposed to exclude a Robinson Crusoe isolated from birth from speaking a language discussion of this topic goes back to Alfred J. Ayer [] and Rush Rhees []; see also Kripke [, p. Norman Malcolm , offers a defense of the "community view," and is countered by Baker and Hacker The community view is rejected by most commentators; for further discussion and references, see Canfield Ayer, Alfred J.

New York: Garland, Ayer's essay originally published in the journal Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society in Baker, G. Scepticism, Rules, and Language. Oxford, U. Candlish, Stewart. Canfield, John V. The Philosophy of Wittgenstein, Vol. Arrington and Hans-Johann Glock. London: Routledge, Craig, Edward.

Hacker, P. New York: Oxford University Press, Kripke, Saul A. McGinn, Marie. Rhees, Rush. Rhees's essay originally published in the journal Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society in Russell, Bertrand. London: George Allen and Unwin, Soames, Scott. Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century , Vol. Wittgenstein, Ludwig.