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There are many dangers and risks for companies. Every day there are reports about cyber attacks, power failures or other scenarios in which companies are endangered to continue their business activities. If a company knows and is able to assess its own risks, this is the first step towards an entrepreneurial resilience strategy with appropriate precautionary measures and a quick and appropriate reaction. With Business Continuity Management we can create the following for your company.

The aim is to reduce or prevent damage to your company. The preparation of an Emergency Manual alone does not constitute emergency management. In particular, many companies focus only on prevention and not on the response to an emergency. It is critical that your processes are robust to create a resilient business strategy that not only protects your business from major damage in an emergency, but also makes your day-to-day business better. If you know your risk, you can develop an applicable Emergency Management Plan via tailor made emergency precaution concepts and train this with employees and members of the crises team.

This will enable your organization to cope with unexpected scenarios. We provide you with an all-round tailor-made solution for your business continuity requirements. With our concepts and solutions, we get you on the road to certification capability according to ISO Regardless of whether you actually want to complete certification, your emergency and crisis management is compatible with national and international standards.

This facilitates communication with service providers and authorities as well as the possible fulfilment of legal and customer requirements. The effectiveness evaluation indices system is built in Figure A i is the index i, which describes the system attributes of the alternatives. Among the indices, there are three different types of indices: one type is the effective index, which value is the more, the better; while the second type is the cost index, which value is the more, the worse; and the third type is the proper index, which characteristic is between the two indices.

Its main idea is to evaluate the alternatives by means of the measurement scale named Euclidean distance. It is fit for evaluating many alternatives, which have different kinds of attributes.


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The evaluation method based on the TOPSIS is very suitable for evaluating the effect of the alternatives, which have many heterogeneous indices. In fact, this method is built on a decision-making matrix, which different rows in the same column index have the same attribute. This is the reason that the heterogeneous data from different plans can also be compared in this evaluation model.

First all, it is necessary to collect the related evaluation data. Combining with the evaluation indices system, get the data or attribute values from the different evaluation indices.

Business Continuity Management - IUGITAS GmbH - Crisis Management

Using such data or attributes values, we can build the evaluation matrix C, seeing the Table 2. In this table, the row denotes the alternatives, and the column name stands for the attributes values of the indices. Here the attributes data is from simulation information. C ij means the j-th attribute of the i-th alternative or emergency plan. Firstly, convert the attributes in table 2 into the decision matrix C. For the data from the matrix C, the attributes from the same column can be compared with different rows.

In order to be convenient to evaluate the different alternatives, we need to standardize the matrix C into matrix R with the unit r ij in formula 1.

Crisis response team decision‐making as a bureau‐political process

For w j , it is the j-th weight of the indices. The matrix R becomes a normalization matrix which also adds the related weights from the evaluation indices, and R will be the foundation of the next evaluation steps. To get the ideal alternative and negative-ideal alternative, it depends on the type of the indices.

Different type indices have different modes of process. At the same time, the negative-ideal alternative vector point is x-in the formula 3 :. Thirdly, calculate Euclidean distance of each alternative to the ideal alternative or the negative-ideal alternative.

Fourthly, calculate the degree of each alternative approaching the ideal alternative Ci in formula 6. According to the formula 6 , if the degree Ci is larger, means that i-th alternative is better. In this application example, the effectiveness of several emergency response alternatives for the earthquake is evaluated based on the above evaluation model. The evaluation process is carried out as follows:. First, set up the evaluation indices system for the earthquake emergency response effectiveness, seeing the Figure Second, there are two kinds of important information to be ready: indices weights and the indices simulation data.

According to the weights acquisition system, get the weights values from x 1 to x 8 as follows:. The simulation values of the indices from x 1 to x 8 are filled in the table 3 , where, x 8 is the cost type index, means the less the better. The indices except x 8 are the effect indices. With the method, we can get the original matrix C from the information in Table 3. Due to each of the index has different weight, it is necessary to think about the indices weights for the original matrix.

Using the formula 1 , we can get the standard matrix P. Notice that X 8 is the cost index, the less the better. According to the approaching degree F, rank all the response plans in descending order as follows:.


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The diagram is described in Figure Based on the evaluation results, the plan 3 Helicopter rescue plan is the first rank of all the plans, and the truck vehicle plan is the second. However, the last is the airplane response plan because it could not make its function to the maximum for example the plane can not land on the damage airport and pick up nothing back.

As far as the future work concerned, there are several points to be done:. Firstly, improve the visual system of decision making system. A good visual system is welcome because we prefer the diagram to text or formulas. The future work will enforce the visual modular in the decision making system. Secondly, improve the simulation technology for analyzing the emergency response plan, especially for the interaction simulation.

Thirdly, improve the evaluation method. As we know, the evaluation method is the core of the decision-making support system. In the future work, we should adopt more evaluation methods to support the evaluation of the emergency response plans for the catastrophes. Put forth a set of systematic framework to simulate and evaluate the emergency response plans. Define the concept of the emergency response effectiveness, and build up a set of the evaluation indices systems for emergency response plans. In this paper, put forth the concept of the emergency response effectiveness, and center on the methods of response effectiveness simulation and evaluation.

A decision-making support system is built to evaluate the emergency response plans. The system is made up of several parts: indices weights acquirement subsystem, simulation mechanism of emergency response process, simulation data acquirement and the integrated evaluation method based on TOPSIS.

Crisis management

By means of the decision-making support system, several response plans in some earthquake disasters are evaluated for their response effectiveness. The evaluation results demonstrate that the simulation and evaluation system is available and reasonable. It is difficult to judge the most suitable preparedness plan from many emergency response plans.

And therefore, it is necessary to build a decision-making support system to evaluate the response plans and to select the most suitable preparedness plan. In fact, we face with the challenge to test and evaluate the response plans under the real conditions of a strong earthquake disaster. Modeling and simulation methods are adopted to evaluate and demonstrate the preparedness plans for their advantages such as low cost, safety research, time-space easily converting, and so on. In this chapter, pointing to the strong earthquake disasters, a decision-making support system framework is designed to manage the emergency response plans, and this framework includes the simulation and evaluation methods.

In detail, a whole research route map is designed and developed to simulate and evaluate the response plans for the untraditional emergency disaster like earthquake. As a result, a serial of technical methods and theory models are included in the systematic framework. There are 5 main parts subsystems in this framework. In this chapter, the concept of the emergency response effectiveness is defined, and it can use as a comprehensive index to measure the degree of the emergency response plan. In order to describe the evaluation indices clearly and be easy to design for programming, we adopt the XML Extensible Markup Language file format to describe the response effectiveness indices of the earthquake disaster.

To get the weights of the evaluation indices, the weights evaluation system based on MVC Model View and Controller mode is built. Referring as the similar process of combat, the emergency response process framework based on OODA loop is built, and put forth a simulation model in DEVS theory. By means of the simulation model, we design the flowchart of the system simulation engines.

It is suitable for the developers to use HLA and RTI to describe emergency response systems full of interactions and interoperability. A typical earthquake disaster is designed as an application scenario. The following emergency response plans are evaluated based on such a scenario. It is necessary to integrate the above simulation data and the weights information of the evaluation indices system from the experts.

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Taking the emergency simulation scenario of the strong earthquake disaster as example, apply with the simulation and evaluation methods in this chapter, and get the evaluation results of emergency response plans. The evaluation results show feasible. In this example, the Helicopter rescue plan is evaluated as the best plan among the response plans, and the truck vehicle plan is the second.

However, the last is the airplane response plan for it can not land on the damage airport and pick up nothing back. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Edited by Abbas Moustafa. By Anna Kurzych, Krzysztof P. Teisseyre, Zbigniew Krajewski and Leszek R. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Built by scientists, for scientists.

Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Introduction The untraditional emergency disasters, like the Sichuan earthquake of China, break out with nothing indication, no time to prepare for. Systematic frameworks for simulating and evaluating the emergency preparedness for earthquake Judging and analyzing the advantage and disadvantages of an emergency response plan needs a good decision making support system.

Evaluation indices orient to the emergency response of the earthquake disaster In order to select a right plan from many emergency response plans, it is necessary to make a good decision to evaluate the emergency response plans. Measurements on the effectiveness for emergency response To evaluate the emergency response plans, we need design a comprehensive evaluation index. Evaluation indices systems for the emergency response preparedness As a comprehensive effectiveness index, it needs to decompose into detailed sub indices.

The weights acquirement for the emergency response effectiveness indices For the evaluation indices system, we have to know how much the sub-indices make role in evaluating the emergency response preparedness. The acquirement of the simulation information The response plans of the emergency event are designed for the future emergency, so that we cannot collect the real data of emergency event, and therefore the simulation method are necessary to evaluate the future emergency plans. Simulation mechanism of the emergency response process As we know that, it is difficult to evaluate the emergency response effectiveness of the earthquake disaster in real environments.

The mechanism on the emergency response process of an earthquake disaster In order to deal with the emergency response to the earthquake disasters, the government especial organization such as emergency departments and their executers should keep reconnaissance on the disaster zone, and make actions according to the detail disaster conditions. Emergency response modeling theory based on OODA With the emergency response framework for the earthquake disaster, we need build a simulation model in scientific language.

Simulation system and simulation data list acquisition 4. The simulation architecture of the emergency response management As we all know that, the earthquake emergency response system is very complex. Response units behaviors simulation scripts After we build a simulation system, we need analyze the simulation behaviors. Earthquake disaster scenario and emergency response simulation In order to analyze the emergency response plans of earthquake disasters, a typical earthquake disaster is designed as an application scenario. Earthquake disaster scenario Suppose a terrible catastrophe like earthquake breaks out in some uncertainty place, seeing the Figure 15 , we should carry out the emergency response plans to quickly rescue the victims.

Id response plans Advantage Disadvantage 1 Truck Vehicle Less relied on weather, fast and land easily. More relied on highway traffic, less safety. More relied on weather, less safety and high cost. Table 1. The advantages and disadvantages of some emergency response plans. The acquisition of the simulation data For example, we select the emergency response plan by truck vehicle to simulate. The integrated evaluation and decision making for the emergency plans As a decision-making system for the emergency response plans, it is necessary to integrate the above simulation data and the weights information of the evaluation indices system from the experts.

The detail evaluation method is researched as follows. Build the evaluation indices system The effectiveness evaluation indices system is built in Figure Table 2. Alternative-attribute information. Response effectiveness indices system and evaluation information acquisition In this application example, the effectiveness of several emergency response alternatives for the earthquake is evaluated based on the above evaluation model.

The evaluation process is carried out as follows: First, set up the evaluation indices system for the earthquake emergency response effectiveness, seeing the Figure Emergency response plan A Rescuing speed x1 Disaster real time report frequency x2 Load volume x3 Bring and fetch capability x4 Beyond the bad weather x5 Dependability of rescue plan x6 Rescue the victims number x7 Action cost x8 Truck 75 15 12 0. Table 3.

An AI Framework Used in Crisis Management and Decision Making

The indices simulation data of emergency response plan. Process of the evaluation With the method, we can get the original matrix C from the information in Table 3. As far as the future work concerned, there are several points to be done: Firstly, improve the visual system of decision making system. Highlights In this paper, there are some highlights as follows: Put forth a set of systematic framework to simulate and evaluate the emergency response plans. Conclusions In this paper, put forth the concept of the emergency response effectiveness, and center on the methods of response effectiveness simulation and evaluation.

Summary It is difficult to judge the most suitable preparedness plan from many emergency response plans. More Print chapter. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard. Available from:. Over 21, IntechOpen readers like this topic Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers Suggest a book topic Books open for submissions.

More statistics for editors and authors Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Access personal reporting. Lo and Yumei Wang. More About Us. Truck Vehicle. Less relied on weather, fast and land easily. Air- plane. Less relied on highway, high speed and large loading capacity.