Guide Learning from Kohut

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Kohut essentially asserted that the aggressive response drew meaning exclusively from its context, and not from an iron clad, consistently destructive biological instinct that gave no agency to its human host. Another area of contrast between the two theorists lay in their understanding of the higher emotions.

Kohut preferred to characterize human personality as a potential, a perennial bloom that could be influenced positively by his or her environment. Ewen, R. An introduction to theories of personality 6 th ed.

The self-psychology of Heinz Kohut: An existential reading

Kohut, H. Heinz Kohut: The Chicago institute lectures.

Tolpin, Eds. Teicholtz, J. Kohut, Loewald and the postmoderns: A comparative study of self and relationship. This term paper on Kohut and Self Psychology and the Freudian Classical Model was written and submitted by user Corban Cooley to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.

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Meaning, the individual has experienced positive relationships with early caretakers, and has thus internalized a positive mental concept of the self and of others objects. A by-product of positive object relations is an integrated sense of self. The individual is able to cope with ambivalence and with the coexistence of good and bad in individuals and the self.

Furthermore, the superego is adaptive and able to cope with disparity between the self and ideal self. Thus, a stable self concept is formed that can readily regulate self-esteem from within. Individuals who present normal adult narcissism have an inner voice which tells them they are good enough.

Heinz Kohut: Selected full-text books and articles

With this basis, individuals can be active and effective players in their lives, and have a stable moral system while expressing innate drives such as aggression and sexuality in acceptable ways. As children develop, their objects relations and self concept are not yet fully integrated.

Therefore, their regulation of self- esteem is partly focused at external gratification. In order to feel good about themselves, they need others to admire them or their possessions.

Progress in Self Psychology, V. 4: Learning from Kohut - AbeBooks:

However, at an early stage of development, this is age appropriate. This is a pathological form of narcissism in which the superego has remained infantile, and thus maintained childish values and ideals. This is the classic narcissistic pathology[2]. These individuals present aberrations in self-love, expression of love to others, and a deviant moral system and superego.

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Self- love refers to characteristic self absorbance. They are grandiose, and fantasize about excessive success in love, beauty, happiness, and influence. However, their self-love is excessively unstable and relies exclusively on praise and admiration of others.


  • Qualifications:.
  • Narcissism (Kernberg) - Learning Theories!
  • Schubert Varieties [Lecture notes].

When the environment does not respond as expected, or when they perceive an inability to achieve their grandiose aspirations, they come crashing downwards with intense feelings of worthlessness, depression, and extreme anger. They have a tendency to take advantage of others in order to feel superior.


  • Learning to Conduct and Rehearse.
  • Typical.
  • Ms. Kohut (teacher) | aqojyvidahiw.ml.

This precludes the ability to form stable and long lasting relationships. According to Kernberg, this pathology develops as a result of early pathological object relations, which result in negative and ambivalent internalized mental images of the self and other. The defense mechanism characteristic of this state is splitting, a primitive method where the self and others are regarded as either entirely good or entirely bad. Having been let down by early relationships, the narcissist develops a mechanism where he becomes self sufficient by creating a pathological symbiosis between the self, the ideal self, and the ideal object.

Meaning, in fantasy, the narcissist unifies the desires he has of himself and other, and therefore does not need others. However, by taking the ideal self from the superego and unifying it with the self, the superego is weakened and becomes overly strict. Taken together with the fact that the narcissist does not have comforting object relations to fall back onto, failure becomes imminent and debilitating.